Indeed, the nutritional profile of a banana does change as it ripens. You have probably noticed that the more ripe your banana is, the sweeter it tastes. This is as a result of enzymes in the fruit’s tissues are progressively breaking down starch (long polymeric form of sugar) into simple sugars (monosaccharides, disaccharides, etc).
Since the enzymes have already done the work of breaking that starch down, your body doesn’t need to; you will absorb the sugars into your blood stream quickly which causes a “spike” in blood sugar.
On the other hand, there could also be some benefit to eating the ripe banana. Supposedly the antioxidant profile of the banana will increases as it ripens.
In conclusion, the ripe banana is perfect when you need quick sugar. If you don’t want the glucose surge, you could consider consuming the ripe banana with some nut butter (which should slow the absorption of sugars into your blood stream) or just eat the banana while its still green-ish (level 3 or 4 in the picture).